Ecological communication in Asia-Pacific: A comparative analysis of social adaptation to maritime disaster in Indonesia and Fiji
This article is of a comparative study of social adaptation in the Cyclone Winston disaster case in Fiji and rob flooding in Semarang, Indonesia. In February 2016, the largest tropical storm in the Southern Hemisphere, Cyclone Winston, struck Fiji and caused severe damage and loss of life. Meanwhile, in the last two decades flooding has become an increasingly acute disaster situation in Semarang and the northern coastal region of Java, Indonesia. Communities in the path of both these disasters are the ones who suffer most. Social adaptation is important to consider in these two cases to encourage improved future mitigation and adaptation efforts. Data was collected from interviews and documents in the form of news media articles and previous research reports relevant to tropical disasters and the impact of climate change. The results show that social adaptation to both types of disasters is not identical due to the characteristics of the two different disasters and the different social, economic, political and cultural contexts in Fiji and Indonesia.
Abidin, H. Z., Andreas, H. , Gumilar, 1., Sidiq, T. P. & Fukuda, Y. (2013). Land subsidence in coastal city of Semarang (Indonesia): Characteristics, impacts and causes. Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, 4(3), 226-240. Retrieved from
After Tropical Cyclone Winston: Fiji humanitarian appeal requests $38.6 million to help restore the island nation (2016, March 4). ReliefWeb, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs [Media release]. Retrieved from https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/PR%20Global%20launch_Fiji%20appeal%204%20March%202016_Geneva_0.pdf
Artiningsih, Setyono, J. S., & Yuniartanti, R. K. (2016). The challenges of disaster governance in an Indonesian multi-hazards city: A case of Semarang, Central Java. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 227, 347-353. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.06.081
BPS Kota Semarang. (2016a). Buku Saku Kota Semarang 2016. Semarang: BPS Kota Semarang.
BPS Kota Semarang. (2016b). Indeks Pembangunan Manusia Kota Semarang 2016. Semarang: BPS Kota Semarang.
Burnside-Lawry, J., Franquet, R., Wairiu, M., Holland, E., & Chand, S. (2017). Communication, collaboration and advocacy: A study of participatory action research to address climate change in the Pacific. The International Journal of Climate Change: Impacts and Responses, 9(4), 11-33.
Campbell, J., & Barnett, J. (2010). Climate change and the small island states: Power, knowledge and the South Pacific. London: Taylor & Francis.
Countries with the longest coastline (2013). 10MostToday.com. Retrieved from https://10mosttoday.com/10-countries-with-longest-coastline/
Crocombe, R. (2008). Elite communication between the Pacific Islands and Asia: A new paradigm evolving. In Papoutsaki, E., & Harris, U. S. (Eds.), South Pacific islands communication: Regional perspectives, local issues (pp. 15-33). Singapore, Auckland, NZ, & Suva, Fiji: Asian Media Information and Communication Centre, Pacific Media Centre and University of the South Pacific.
Cuginotti, A. (2014, December 14). Ecological communication | Niklas Luhmann. Retrieved from http://augustocuginotti.com/ecological-communication-niklas-luhmann/
Dhabuwala, A. (2016, March 22). Long after cyclone Winston, Fiji women struggle for basic needs. Asia Pacific Report. Retrieved from https://asiapacificreport.nz/2016/03/22/long-after-cyclone-winston-fiji-women-struggle-for-basic-needs/
Dreher, T., & Voyer, M. (2015). Climate refugees or migrants? Contesting media frames on climate justice in the Pacific. Environmental Communication, 9(1), 58-76.
Finau, G., Cox, J., Tarai, J., Kant. R., Varea, R., & Titifanue, J. (2018). Social media and disaster communication: A case study of Cyclone Winston. Pacific Journalism Review, 24(1). 123-137 doi;10.24135/pjr.v24i1.400
Friere, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.
Giddens, A. (2009). The politics of climate change. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Hadi, S.P.; In search for sustainable coastal management: A case study of Semarang, Indonesia. IOPP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 55, 012054. Retrieved from http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/55/1/012054/pdf
Harwitasari, D., & Van Ast, J. A. (2011). Climate change adaptation in practice: People's responses to tidal flooding in Semarang, Indonesia. Journal of flood risk management, 4(3), 216-233.
Indonesia (2018). Wikipedia encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesia
IPCC (2012). Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jasperse, J. (2008). Environmental journalism in the Pacific: cross-cutting and cross-weaving. In Singh, S., & Prasad, B. (Eds.), Media & development: Issues and challenges in the Pacific Islands (pp. 59-71). Suva: University of the South Pacific.
Luhmann, N. (1989). Ecological communication. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Leinbach, T. R. R, & Frederick, W. H. (n.d.). Southeast Asia: Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from www.britannica.com/place/Southeast-Asia
Lutunatabua, F. (2016, March 9). Walking in Fiji post-tropical cyclone Winston. Beyond The Narrative [blog]. Retrieved from https://medium.com/@fentonlutun/walking-in-fiji-post-tropical-cyclone-winston-2a946836d5d4
McLean, R., Tysban, A., Burkett, V., Codignotto, J.O., Forbes, D.L., Mimura, N., Beamish, R.J., Ittekkot,, V. (2001). Coastal zone and marine ecosystem. In McCarthy, J.J., Canziani, O.F., Leary, N.A., Dokken, D.J. White, K.S (Eds), Climate change 2001: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Manyozo, L. (2012). Media, communication and development: Three approaches. New Delhi: Sage Publications.
Marfai, M. A., & King, L. (2007). Tidal inundation mapping under enhanced land subsidence in Semarang Central Java Indonesia. Natural Hazards. doi:10.1007/s11069-007-9144-z.
Marfai, M.A., King, L., Sartohadi, J., Sudrajat, Budiani, S.R., & Fajar Yulianto (2008). The impact of tidal flooding on a coastal community in Semarang, Indonesia. Environmentalist (2008) 28:237–248 doi:10.1007/s10669-007-9134-4
Marfai, M. A., & King, L. (2008). Coastal flood management in Semarang, Indonesia. Environmental Geology, 55(7), 1507-1518.
Morgan, W. (2017). Coal comfort: Pacific Islands on collision course with Australia over emissions. Pacific Journalism Review, 23(1), 25-31. https://doi.org/10.24135/pjr.v23i1.311
Munasinghe, M. & Swart, R. (2005). Primer on climate change and sustainable development facts, policy analysis and applications. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Nashrrullah, S., Hazarika, M. K., Pasaribu, J. M., Aprijanto & Semarakoon, L. (2013). Study on flood inundation in Pekalongan, Central Java. International Journal of Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences, 10(2), 76-83.
Pasotti, J. (2017, Oktober). Takdir Sang Pesisir. National Geographic, 13(10) p. 50-61.
Papoutsaki, E., & Harris, U. S. (2008). South Pacific islands communication: Regional perspectives, local issues. Singapore, Auckland, NZ, & Suva, Fiji: Asian Media Information and Communication Centre, Pacific Media Centre and University of the South Pacific.
Perwarta, F. (2016, April 8). Indonesia strengthens ties with Pacific ‘good friends’. Asia Pacific Report. Retrieved from https://asiapacificreport.nz/2016/04/08/indonesia-strengthens-ties-with-its-pacific-good-friends
Pittock, B. & Jones R. N. (2000). Adaptation to what and why. Environ Monit Assess 2000, 61, 9–35.
Robie, D. (2014). Pacific Media Watch: Beyond parochial news. Media Asia, 41(3), 220-226. doi: 10.1080/01296612.2014.11690019
Robie, D. (2017a). The insecurity legacy of the Rainbow Warrior affair: A human rights transition from nuclear to climate-change refugees. Pacific Dynamics: Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, 1(1), 34-53. Retrieved from https://ir.canterbury.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10092/13641/David%20RobieRainbow%20warrior.pdf
Robie, D. (2017b, November 18). Tiny Timbulsloko fights back in face of Indonesia’s ‘ecological disaster’. Asia Pacific Report. Retrieved from https://asiapacificreport.nz/2017/11/18/tiny-timbulsloko-fights-back-in-face-of-indonesias-ecological-disaster/
Robie, D., and Chand, S. (2017). Bearing Witness 2016: A Fiji climate change journalism case study. Pacific Journalism Review: Te Koakoa, 23(1), 186-205. https://doi.org/10.24135/pjr.v23i1.257
Robinson, M. (2015). Women’s participation: An enabler of climate justice. Mary Robinson Foundation. Retrieved from www.mrfcj.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/MRFCJ-_Womens-Participation-An-Enabler-of-Climate-Justice_2015.pdf
Salamanca, A. & Rigg, J. (2016). Adaptation to climate change in Southeast Asia: developing a relational approach. In Hirsch, P. (Ed.), Routledge handbook of the environment in Southeast Asia. London: Taylor & Francis.
Singh, S., & Prasad, B. (2008). Media & development: Issues and challenges in the Pacific Islands. Suva: University of the South Pacific.
Tabureguci, D. (2016). Fiji picks up the pieces after TC Winston – looking to tourism, remittances. Asia Pacific Report/Business Melanesia. Retrieved from https://asiapacificreport.nz/2016/04/04/fiji-picks-up-the-pieces-after-tc-winston-looking-to-tourism-remittances/
Terry, J. P. (2007). Tropical cyclones: Climatology and impacts in the South Pacific. New York: Springer-Verlag.
UNESCO supports recovery of Vanuatu’s culture sector following tropical cyclone Pam (2015, May 15). Prevention Web. Retrieved from www.preventionweb.net/news/view/44408
UNISDR (2014). Asia Pacific input document for the post-2015 framework for disaster reduction (HFA2). Retrieved from www.unisdr.org/we/inform/publications/38055
Walsh, K. J. E., McInnes, K. L., & McBride, J. L. (2011). Climate change impacts on tropical cyclones and extreme sea levels in the South Pacific – A regional assessment. Global and Planetary Change, 80-81, 149-164. doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.10.006
Wesley, F. (2016, February 26). Prepared? Yes, but devastation of Winston was overwhelming. Asia Pacific Report/The Fiji Times. Retrieved from https://asiapacificreport.nz/2016/02/26/prepared-yes-but-devastation-of-winston-was-overwhelming/
• Fenton Lutunatabua, Pacific communications coordinator with 350.org Pacific climate advocates, Fiji, 27 February 2018
• Muhammad Helmi, Director of CoREM (Center for Coastal Disaster Mitigation and Rehabilitation Studies), UNDIP, Semarang, 18 November 2017.
• Sarika Chand, communications officer for USP’s Pacific Centre for Environment and Sustainable Development (PaCE-SD), Suva, Fiji, 26 February 2018.
• Shailendra Singh, Senior Lecturer and Coodinator of Journalism, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji, 13 February 2018.
• Eko, Batursari villager, Semarang, 2018
• Toyo, Tambaklorok villager, Semarang, 2018
• M. Suyartono, Genuk resident, Semarang, 2018
• Suharto, Tambaklorok villager, Semarang, 2018
Ashari, F., & Pamungkas, S. (2012). Kampung rob di jantung kota [Documentary]. 20min. Metro TV/Eagle Institute. Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?v=FgN1t0BpDSs
Robie, D. (2017). Eye in the sky views of Demak Timbulsloko [Video]. Café Pacific. 2min27sec. Footage from Diponegoro University, Semarang. www.youtube.com/watch?v=PQGPAKYCJ4c
Rytz, M. (2017). Anote’s Ark – Sundance 2018 [Documentary]. 2min09 trailer. EyeSteelFilms. vimeo.com/244728466
Copyright (c) 2018 Hermin Indah Wahyuni, Andi Awaluddin Fitrah, Fitri Handayani, David Robie
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors submitting articles for publication warrant that the work is not an infringement of any existing copyright and will indemnify the publisher against any breach of such warranty. By publishing in Pacific Journalism Review, the author(s) agree to the dissemination of their work through Pacific Journalism Review and on the PJR databases.
By publishing in Pacific Journalism Review, the authors grant the Journal a Creative Commons nonexclusive worldwide license for electronic dissemination of the article via the internet, and, a nonexclusive right to license others to reproduce, republish, transmit, and distribute the content of the journal. The authors grant the Journal the right to transfer content (without changing it), to any medium or format necessary for the purpose of preservation.
Authors agree that the Journal will not be liable for any damages, costs, or losses whatsoever arising in any circumstances from its services, including damages arising from the breakdown of technology and difficulties with access.