Gazing over the horizon: Will an equitable Green Climate Fund allocation policy be significant for the Pacific post-2020?
The establishment of the Green Climate Fund (GCF) has increased expectations and optimism amongst developing countries, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to climate change. The GCF aims to channel a significant portion of global funds for climate change response, with a goal of reaching US$100 billion per year by 2020. Portrayed as a timely saviour to the climate finance needs of vulnerable countries, the allocation of GCF funds among countries will be key to low carbon and resilient futures. Its broad allocation policy increases the possibility that particularly vulnerable countries which have struggled to access international climate finance will continue to face such challenges. Adopting an equitable/fair principle of allocation, this article highlights a number of scenarios on the possible impact of the post-2020 climate financing environment on particularly vulnerable countries with a special focus on the Pacific Small Island Developing States (PSIDS). This study argues that PSIDS are extremely sensitive to GCF allocation mechanisms. While the study supports the notion of balanced allocation as currently advanced by the GCF, the precarious situation of PSIDS necessitates a re-think of how the GCF finance is to be allocated in the future.
Arkin, F. (2018). DevExplains: Green Climate Funds. Retrieved on May 1, 2018, from www.devex.com/news/devexplains-green-climate-funds-91802
Atteridge, A., & Canales, N. (2017). Climate finance in the Pacific: An overview of flows to the region’s Small Island Developing States. Working Paper 2014-04. Stockholm Environment Institute. Stockhom. Retrieved on March 1, 2017, from www.sei-international.org/publications?pid=3083
Azevedo, L. (2017). Green Climate Fund + climate investment funds = global finance architecture. Retrieved on April 1, 2018, from www.afdb.org/en/blogs/a-race-against-time/post/green-climate-fund-climate-investment-funds-global-finance-architecture-17508/
Barnard, S., Nakhooda, S., Caravani, A., & Schalatek, L. (2015). Climate Finance Regional Briefing: Asia Climate Finance Fundamentals. London: ODI. 1-4.
Barnett, J., Lambert, S., & Fry, I. (2008). The hazards of indicators: Insights from the environmental vulnerability index. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 98(1), 102-119.
Barr, R., Frankhauser, S., & Hamilton, K. (2010). Adaptation investments: a resource allocation framework. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 15(8), 843-858. doi 10.1007/s11027-010-9242-1
Climate Investment Fund. (2009). The selection of countries to participate in the pilot program for climate resilience (PPCR). Report of the Expert Group (established by the Pilot Programme on Climate Resilience Subcommittee, PPCR-SC), to the PPCR Subcommittee, Climate Investment Funds. Washington, DC, USA, The World Bank Group.
Countries pledge $9.3bn for Green climate Fund (2014, November 20). The Guardian/Agence France-Presse. Retrieved April 1, 2018, from www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/nov/20/countries-pledge-93bn-for-green-climate-fund
Dirix, J., Peeters, W., & Sterckx, S.(2012). Equal per capita entitlements to greenhouse gas emissions: a justice based-critique. In Climate Change and Sustainable Development (pp. 121-127). Wageningen Academic Publishers.
Dreher, T., & Voyer, M. (2015). Climate refugees or migrants? Contesting media frames on climate justice in the Pacific. Environmental Communication, 9(1), 58-76. doi 10.1080/17524032.2014.932818
Eisenack, K., & Stecker, R. (2012). A framework for analyzing climate change adaptations as actions. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 17(3), 243-260. doi: 10.1007/s10027-001-9323-9
Ferreira, P.G. (2017). Equitable allocation of climate adaptation finance considering income levels alongside vulnerability. CIGI Papers: No. 152. Center for International Governance Innovation. 1-28.
Friends of the Earth. (2014). Green Climate Fund. Retrieved on May 1, 2018 from https://foe.org/projects/green-climate-fund/
Füssel, H-M., Hallegate, S., & Reder, M. (2012). International adaptation funding. In Edenhofer O., Wallacher J., Lotze-Campen H., Reder M., Knopf B., Müller J. (Eds.), Climate Change, Justice and Sustainability. Springer, Dordrecht. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-4540-7_29
Grasso, M. (2010). An ethical approach to climate adaptation finance. Global Environmental Change, 20(1), 74-81. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.10.006
GCF (2018). Empowering countries. Retrieved on April 11, 2018, from www.greenclimate.fund/how-we-work/empowering-countries.
GCF. (2017). GCF perspectives—Ambassador Aliioaiga Feturi Elisaia of Samoa. Retrieved on May 1, 2018, from www.greenclimate.fund/-/gcf-perspectives-ambassador-aliioaiga-feturi-elisaia-of-samoa
GCF. (2014). Policies and procedures for the initial allocation of fund resources. GCF/B.06/05 Retrieved in February, from www.greenclimate.fund/documents/20182/24940
Harvey, C. (2014). Countries are donating billions to a global fund—Here’s what it’s for. Retrieved on April 30, 2018, from www.businessinsider.com/what-is-the-green-climate-fund-2014-12.
Klein, R. J., & Möhner, A. (2011). The political dimension of vulnerability: Implications for the Green Climate Fund. IDS Bulletin, 42(3), 15-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1759-5436.2011.00218.x
Maclellan, N. (2011). Turning the tide: improving access to climate financing in the Pacific Islands. Retrieved on March 10, 2017 from www.lowyinstitute.org/publications/turning-tide-improving-access-climate-financing-pacific-islands
Kumar, R. (2017). Workshop on Green Climate Fund. Retrieved on April 1, 2018, from www.cookislandsnews.com/item/66392-workshop-on-green-climate-fund
Maclellan, N. (2011). Improving access to climate financing for the Pacific islands. Retrieved on April 1, 2018, from www.lowyinstitute.org/publications/improving-access-climate-financing-pacific-islands
Maclellan, N., & Meads, S. (2016). After Paris; climate finance in the Pacific islands. Auckland, NZ: Oxfam Research Report.
Maggioni, E. (2010). Justice implications of adaptation to Climate Change and its governance. Retrieved on December 5, 2017, from http://www.diss.fu-berlin.de/docs/servlets/MCRFileNodeServlet/FUDOCS_derivate_000000001614/Maggioni__Justice_Implications_of_Adaptation_to_Climate_Change_and_its_Governance.pdf
Müller, B. (2013). The allocation of (adaptation) resources lessons from fiscal transfer mechanisms. Retrieved on March 10, 2017, from www.oxfordenergy.org/publications/the-allocation-of-adaptation-resources/
Paavola, J. & Adger, W.N. (2006). Fair adaptation to climate change. Ecological Economics, 56(4), 594-609. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2005.03.015
Pacific Media Watch. (2018) Asia Pacific media must ‘empower people’ on climate action, says PMC. Retrieved on May 1, 2018, from https://asiapacificreport.nz/2018/03/26/asia-pacific-media-must-empower-people-on-climate-action-says-pmc/
Persson, A. & Remling, E. (2014). Equity and efficiency in adaptation finance: initial experiences of the Adaptation Fund. Climate Policy, 14(4), 488-506. doi: 10.1080/14693062.2013.879514
Rawls, J. (1958). Justice as fairness. The Philosphical Review, 67(2), 164-194. doi: 10.2307/2182612
Robie, D., & Chand, S. (2017). Bearing Witness 2016: A Fiji climate change journalism case study. Pacific Journalism Review: Te Koakoa, 23(1), 186-205. doi: 10.24135/pjr.v23i1.257
Rowling, M. (2012). New UN Climate Fund must work for the Poor—NGOs. Retrieved April 30, 2018, from http://wedo.org/new-un-climate-fund-must-work-for-the-poor-ngos/
Sokona, Y., & Denton, F. (2001). Climate change impacts: can Africa cope with the challenges? Climate Policy, 1(1), 117-123. doi: 10.3763/cpol.2001.0110
Stadelmann, M., Persson, A., Ratajczak-Juszzko, I., & Michaelowa, A. (2014). Equity and cost-effectiveness of multilateral adaptation finance: are they friends or foes? International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, 14(2), 101-120. doi: 10.1007/s10784-013-9206-5
The World Bank. (2017). The World Bank in Pacific islands. Retrieved on September 15, 2017, from www.worldbank.org/en/country/pacificislands
Copyright (c) 2019 Jale Samuwai, Jeremy Maxwell Hills
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.