Revisiting the GameFlow Model with Detailed Heuristics

  • Penelope Sweetser
  • Daniel Johnson
  • Peta Wyeth


The GameFlow model strives to be a general model of player enjoyment, applicable to all game genres and platforms. Derived from a general set of heuristics for creating enjoyable player experiences, the GameFlow model has been widely used in evaluating many types of games, as well as non-game applications. However, we recognize that more specific, low-level, and implementable criteria are potentially more useful for designing and evaluating video games. Consequently, the research reported in this paper aims to provide detailed heuristics for designing and evaluating one specific game genre, real-time strategy games. In order to develop these heuristics, we conducted a grounded theoretical analysis on a set of professional game reviews and structured the resulting heuristics using the GameFlow model. A selection of the resulting 165 heuristics are presented in this paper and discussed with respect to key evaluations of the GameFlow model.

How to Cite
Sweetser, P., Johnson, D., & Wyeth, P. (2013). Revisiting the GameFlow Model with Detailed Heuristics. The Journal of Creative Technologies, (3). Retrieved from