Notes on notes

Note-taking and record-keeping in psychotherapy

  • Keith Tudor Auckland University of Technology
  • Kris Gledhill Auckland University of Technology
Keywords: notes; note-taking; records; record-keeping; privacy.


This article offers information and views about note-taking and record-keeping in the practice of psychotherapy in this country, in the context of the limited literature on the topic. It provides a brief review of what principal figures wrote about taking notes and making records, specifically Sigmund Freud and Eric Berne. It considers the purpose of making notes and keeping records, and presents key terms and conditions on the subject. Finally, it reviews relevant declarations and legislation regarding notes and records pertinent to the practice of psychotherapy in Aotearoa New Zealand.

Author Biographies

Keith Tudor, Auckland University of Technology

Keith Tudor is Professor of Psychotherapy at Auckland University of Technology (AUT) where he is also a co-lead of the AUT Group for Research in the Psychological Therapies. He is working on a number of projects with Kris Gledhill, including an article on Pae Ora — Health Futures, and another on psychotherapy and disability in the context of human rights. He has a small independent practice in West Auckland as a health care provider, supervisor, and trainer, with regard to which he takes minimal notes.

Kris Gledhill, Auckland University of Technology

Kris Gledhill spent the first part of his career as a lawyer; as a barrister in London, his main work was representing detained people, including those subject to mental health legislation. He always maintained an academic side, publishing articles and books, and lecturing both in academic settings and in continuing professional development settings. In 2006, he moved to Aotearoa New Zealand and academia became the forefront of his work. He is currently a Professor of Law at AUT’s Law School. He has published several further books in academic articles and op-ed pieces; he edits two journals and a book series. His teaching, in the areas of criminal law, human rights law, clinical legal education and prison law, has included numerous courses taught as a visiting professor at various overseas universities. Kris remains grounded outside academia, working with lawyers and governmental bodies, lecturing in various continuing professional development settings for various professions, and serving on various committees. His particular interest is in developing arguments based on the Human Rights Framework that allow social progress to be made, whether through legislation, policy development or litigation. This has led to his involvement in several cross-disciplinary research projects. See his profile and links at: https://academics.

How to Cite
Tudor, K., & Gledhill, K. (2022). Notes on notes: Note-taking and record-keeping in psychotherapy. Ata: Journal of Psychotherapy Aotearoa New Zealand, 26(2), 123-144.