Exploring the Sexual Aetiology of Violence
Many of the different theoretical and practical approaches of NZAP members to their work have Freudian theory as their historical ground, although some have diverged in different directions from this base. Freud placed sexual theory at the centre of his attempt to understand human mental suffering and it remains very relevant and useful in everyday psychodynamic clinical practice; however its scientific basis has become outdated, and this has led to the loss of its presence in the literature. This paper re-affirms Reich’s challenge to Freud not to lose faith in sexual theory, and provides an update from the perspective of population genetics. Beginning with a brief historical overview of the early development of psychodynamic sexual theory, the paper explores the associated symbolic and logical domains, as these domains fluctuate in their role as figure or ground, emphasising relationship as the key to healing. The reworking of sexual theory offers a wider community and social context providing, perhaps, a ground on which to bring our clinical knowledge to the task of understanding and working with conflict within our own community and the community at large, including the bicultural relationship between Māori and Pākehā.
Ko te maha o ngā ara ariā, ara mahi hoki a te whānau o te NZAP ki ā rātou mahi whai ai i ngā ariā a Freud hai whakapapa kōrero o mua, ahakoa kua whai pekā kē atu ētahi mai i tēnei papa. I tāpaia e Freud te ariā taihemahema ki waenganui o tana whakatau kia mārama mai te mamae o te hinengaro tangata ā, kei te noho hāngai tonu ki ngā mahi manamanahau haumanu hinengaro. Heoi kua tawhito kē tēnei tirohanga papa pūtaiao, ā, kua ngaro tōna āhua i roto i ngā pūkōrero. E tautoko ana tēnei kōrero i te wero a Reich ki a Freud kia kaua e waiho noa te ariā taihemanga, ka whakaratohia tētahi tirohanga hou e ai ki ā te mātauranga momo whakaheke. Tīmatahia ana ki tētahi kōrero poto mō te hītori o te whanaketanga ake o te ariā manamanahau taihemanga, ka toro te kōrero ki te rapu i ngā tohu me ngā wāhi whaitika, i te mea ka taurangi ngā āhua o ēnei wāhi ki tērā o te rangi o te papa rānei: e whakahau ana ko te whakapapa te ara ki te whakaoranga. Ko te huringa ake anō o te ariā taihemahema te tuku ki te hāpori whānui me te horopaki hāpori, tērā pea he papa hei arotake i ngā mātauranga whakakaoa kia mātau ai ki te kite ki te mahi tahi i ngā raruraru kei waenga i te hāpori whāiti, hāpori whānui tae atu hoki ki te āhua noho a te Māori me te Pākehā.